Outreach resources

Outreach resources

General | Model | Info | Movies | Equipment & Tools | Teaching | History

General Resources

Info about Drosophila as a model

General fly-related outreach info

Movies and images about Drosophila and fly research

Equipment, tools, materials

    • DrosophilaHamaBead

      A Hama bead fly made according to our plan.

      Hama bead patterns of Drosophila and other model organisms

    • Affordable microscopes and suitable activities [LINK1] [LINK2]; see also report on the NODE [LINK]
    • Turn your smartphone into a microscope with some inexpensive materials — [LINK1] – [LINK2]
    • Supply of fly food that can be stored for months at room temperature
    • Instructions how to generate and use a pooter for fly genetics
    • A fold plan of a fly box with lots of fun info to store your fly lab tools
    • A Scratch video game with Drosophila.

      A Scratch video game with Drosophila.

      A Scratch video game using Drosophila stock keeping against mutation, mites and infections as the story line — [LINK]

    • Use the Genotype Builder to quickly generate images of flies with your own choice of marker combinations
    • A film showing how to sleep flies with CO2 — [LINK]
    • Animated life cycle for download as PowerPoint file — [LINK]

Fly life cycle

Info for teaching Drosophila at schools & universities

  • See our Teachers & Schools page
  • The droso4schools website providing online support for school lessons using Drosophila
  • Blog summarising and explaining all school resources of the Manchester Fly Facility: Bringing life into biology lessons: using the fruit fly Drosophila as a powerful modern teaching tool
  • FlyOnTheWall blog: Establishing fruit flies as modern teaching tools in schools
  • FlyOnTheWall blog: Fly Life: Fruit flies in the science classroom
  • The Wonderful Fruit Fly, an interactive website for biology students and teachers
  • Brief guide of how to set up Drosophila melanogaster in the classroom
  • M. Burke, R. Center, L. Kelly: Laboratory Handbook: Using Drosophila melanogaster in middle and high school classrooms
  • Genetics Otago: Resources for teaching senior school students (years 11–13)
  • Classroom activities: Measuring circadian activity in Drosophila
  • University of Leicester initiative: Fruit flies swoop into school science lessons
  • A film describing a genetic test cross: Is vestigial a sex-linked?
  • Natl. Inst. of Drug abuse: Exploring Genetic Inheritance in Drosophila
  • Exploratorium: Exhibiting mutant flies
  • Weigmann, K., Klapper, R., Strasser, T., Rickert, C., Technau, G., Jäckle, H., Janning, W., Klämbt, C. (2003). FlyMove – a new way to look at development of Drosophila. Trends Genet 19, 310-1 — [LINK]
  • F. Carrero-Martinez and A. Méndez: Exploring Genetic Inheritance in Drosophila (K12 to undergraduate)
  • Fly resource collection: Julian’s Science Fair
  • A simulator for Drosophila genetic crosses
  • Online help for writing Punnett squares for fly genetics; read also comments on The Node
  • A science outreach resource on body size regulation for high school teachers: “Size Control Mechanisms
  • Molly Renner, Kathryn Orzech, and Lisa Schwartz: The Study of Fruit Fly Genetics at City High School
  • Experience working in your own Virtual Fly lab
  • Prokop, A. (2013). 2nd year Drosophila developmental genetics practical — [LINK]
  • Fostier, M., Patel, S., Clarke, S., Prokop, A. (2015). A novel electronic assessment strategy to support applied Drosophila genetics training on university courses. G3 (Bethesda) — [LINK]
  • A classical experiment by Gräf et al.: Temperature effect on Expression of Phenotype — [LINK]
  • A classical experiment by Gräf et al.: Chromatographic Analysis of Eye Color Mutants — [LINK]
  • Chen, J. et al. (2005). Discovery-based science education: functional genomic dissection in Drosophila by undergraduate researchers. PLoS Biol 3, e59 — [LINk1] – [LINK2]
  • Using the power of 900 undergrads to edit highly repetitive DNA sequences: Leung, W. et al. (2015). Drosophila Muller F elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution. G3/Bethesda 5, 719-740 — [LINK1] – [LINK2]
  • Harrison, A. B., Oswald, M., and Sweeney, S. T. (2011). Teaching report: the use of Drosophila melanogasterlarval thermosensitive escape behaviour as a model system to demonstrate sensory function. Invert Neurosci 11, 109-12 — [LINK]
  • Optogenetic tools in the classroom: Titlow, J., Anderson, H., Cooper, R. (2014). Lights and larvae. The Science Teacher 9/14, 3-9 — [LINK1] [LINK2] [LINK3]
  • BackYard blog about optogenetics
  • A collection of Biology lessons for schools using Drosophila including PowerPoint and support materials — [LINK]
  • Heil, C. S. et al. (2012). Witnessing phenotypic and molecular evolution in the fruit fly. Evolution (N Y) 5, 629-634 — [LINK]
  • Pulver, S. R., and Berni, J. (2012). The fundamentals of flying: simple and inexpensive strategies for employingDrosophila genetics in neuroscience teaching laboratories. The Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education 11, A139-48 — [LINK]
  • Dunne, C. R. et al. (2014). Structured inquiry-based learning: Drosophila GAL4 enhancer trap characterization in an undergraduate laboratory course. PLoS Biol 12, e1002030 — [LINK]
  • Pulver, S. R., Hornstein, N. J., Land, B. L., Johnson, B. R. (2011). Optogenetics in the teaching laboratory: using channelrhodopsin-2 to study the neural basis of behavior and synaptic physiology in Drosophila. Adv Physiol Educ 35, 82-91 — [LINK]
  • Vilinsky, I., Johnson, K. G. (2012). The fundamentals of flying: simple and inexpensive strategies for employing Drosophila genetics in neuroscience teaching laboratories.The Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education11, A149-57 — [LINK] 
  • Ables, E. T. (2015). Drosophila oocytes as a model for understanding meiosis: an educational primer to accompany “corolla is a novel protein that contributes to the architecture of the synaptonemal complex of Drosophila“. Genetics 199, 17-23 — [LINK]
  • Venema, D. R. (2006). Enhancing undergraduate teaching and research with a Drosophila virginizing system. CBE- Life Sciences Education — [LINK]
  • Siyad, F., Griffiths, J., Janjua, F., Jackson, E., Rodrigues, I., Kerr, F., Mackay, D., Lovestone, S. (2005). School students as Drosophila experimenters. PLoS Biology 3, e246 — [LINK]
  • Chippindale, A., Archer, M., Gass, E., Rose, M, Mueller, L: Laboratory Manual of Drosophila. Evolutionary Biology Research — [LINK]
  • Titlow, JS., Johnson, BR., Pulvar, SR. (2015) Light activated escape circuits: A behaviour and neurophysiology la module using Drosophila Optogenetics — [LINK]

About the history of Drosophila research

  • Allchin, D. (1997). Thomas Hunt Morgan & the white-eyed mutant. In “Doing Biology (chapter 5)” (J. B. Hagen, D. Allchin, F. Singer, Eds.). Benjamin Cummings — [LINK]
  • Allen, G.E. (1969) T.H. Morgan and the emergence of a new American biology. Q Rev Biol 44, 168-188
  • Allen, G. E. (1978). “Thomas Hunt Morgan: the man and his science ” Princeton Univ Press, Princeton — [LINK1] – [LINK2]
  • An overview of Drosophila history: Ashburner, M. (1993). Epilogue. In “The development of Drosophila melanogaster” (M. Bate, A. Martínez Arias, Eds.), Vol. 2, pp. 1493-1506. CSH Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor
  • Ashburner, M., Bergman, C. M. (2005). Drosophila melanogaster: A case study of a model genomic sequence and its consequences. Genome Research 15, 1661-1667 — [LINK]
  • Ashburner, M. (2006). “Won for all: How the Drosophila genome was sequenced.” Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press,U.S., New York
  • Bellen, H. J., Tong, C., Tsuda, H. (2010). 100 years of Drosophila research and its impact on vertebrate neuroscience: a history lesson for the future. Nat Rev Neurosci 11, 514-522 — [LINK1] — [LINK2]
  • Bellen, H.J., Yamamoto, S. (2015). Morgan’s Legacy: Fruit Flies and the Functional Annotation of Conserved Genes. Cell 163, 12-14 — [LINK]
  • Berg, P., Singer, M. (2003) George Beadle: An Uncommon Farmer. The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor
  • Brookes, M. (2001/2002). “Fly: The Unsung Hero of Twentieth-Century Science.” Ecco/Phoenix — [LINK]
  • Cagan, R., Gottlieb, E. (2016). In memory of Marcos Vidal (1974-2016). Dis Models Mech  — [LINK]
  • Carlson, E. A. (1981). “Genes, radiation, and society: the life and work of H. J. Muller.” Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y
  • Carlson, E. A. (2013). How fruit flies came to launch the chromosome theory of heredity. Mutat Res 753, 1-6 — [LINK]
  • Cobb, M. (1995). The fly of the lords. Evolution 49, 581-3 — [LINK]
  • Crow, J. F. (1988). A diamond anniversary: the first chromosomal map. Genetics 118, 1-3 — [LINK]
  • Crow, J. F. (1993). N. I. Vavilov, martyr to genetic truth. Genetics 134, 1-4 — [LINK]
  • Crow, J. F., Lindsley, D., Lucchesi, J. (2006). Edward Novitski: Drosophila virtuoso. Genetics 174, 549-53 — [LINK]
  • David, J. R., Lemeunier, F., Tsacas, L., Yassin, A. (2007). The historical discovery of the nine species in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Genetics 177, 1969-1973 — [LINK]
  • Demerec, M. (1934) Memorandum on the salivary gland chromosomes. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives
  • Dunn, L.C. (1951) Genetics in the 20th century. Macmillan
  • Drosophila-specific blog posts by The Embryo Project — [LINK]
  • Gao P.K. (2015) On the twentieth anniversary of the Nobel Prize for research in fly embryonic development. The Node blog post — [LINK]
  • Gelling, C. (2015) Calvin Bridges: Bringing genes down to earth (GSA – Genes to Genomes blog) — [LINK]
  • Gelling, C. (2016) Dobzhansky: Bug collecting and the Modern Synthesis (GSA – Genes to Genomes blog) — [LINK]
  • Gelling, C. (2016) Happy 150th to a fruit fly wrangler who changed the world (about T.H. Morgan) — [LINK]
  • Green, M. M. (2010) 2010: A century of Drosophila genetics through the prism of the white Genetics 184, 3-7 — [LINK]
  • Horowitz, NH. (1998) T.H. Morgan at Caltech: A reminiscence. Genetics 149, 1629-32
  • Waddington Medal lecture by P. Ingham about the Hedgehog story – [LINK]
  • A series of articles in J Biosci (2014, issue 39/4, pp.543-603) about Obaid Siddiqi – [LINK]
  • Kaufman, T. (2015). In Memoriam William Martin Gelbart (1945-2015). Genetics 201, 809-10 — [LINK]
  • Keller, A. (2007). Drosophila melanogaster‘s history as a human commensal. Curr Biol 17, R77-81 — [LINK]
  • Keller, E. F. (1996). Drosophila embryos as transitional objects: the work of Donald Poulson and Christiane Nusslein-Volhard. Hist Stud Phys Biol Sci 26, 313-46 — [LINK]
  • Kelty, C. M. (2012). This is not an article: Model organism newsletters and the question of `open science’. BioSocieties 7, 140-68 — [LINK]
  • All issues of the legendary Drosophila Information Service — [LINK]
  • Kohler, R. E. (1994). “Lords of the fly. Drosophila genetics and the experimental life.” The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London — [LINK]
  • Lewis, E. B. (1995). The video shown during the Nobel Prize lecture — [LINK]
  • Lewis, E. B. (1995). Remembering Sturtevant. Genetics 141, 1227-30 — [LINK]
  • Lewis, E. B. (1998). Alfred Henry Sturtevant: November 21, 1891-April 5, 1970. Biogr Mem Natl Acad Sci 73, 349-62 — [LINK]
  • Lewis, E.B. (2003) C.B. Bridges’ repeat hypothesis and the nature of the gene. Genetics 164, 427-31
  • Lindsley, D. (2008) Drosophila genetics – The first 25 years — [LINK]
  • Lipshitz, H. D. (2005). From fruit flies to fallout: Ed Lewis and his science. Dev Dyn 232, 529-46 — [LINK]
  • Lipshitz, H. D. (2007). “Genes, Development and Cancer: The Life and Work of Edward B. Lewis.” Springer Science & Business Media — [LINK]
  • MacIntyre, R., Gearhart, J., Effron, J., O’ Brien, S., Fogleman, J. (2015). In Memory of Bruce Wallace: 1920–2015 (Population Genetics). J Hered 106, 331-332 — [LINK]
  • Martinez Arias, A. (2008). Drosophila melanogaster and the development of biology in the 20th century. InDrosophila. Methods and Protocols” (C. Dahmann, Ed.), Vol. 420, pp. 1-25. Humana Press — [LINK1] — [LINK2]
  • Mlodzik, M., Halder, G. (2014). Walter J. Gehring (1939–2014). Dev Biol 395, 1-3 — [LINK]
  • Morgan, T. H., Bridges, C. B., Sturtevant, A. H. (1925). The genetics of Drosophila. Bibliographia Genetica 2, 1-262
  • Morgan, T.H. (1940) Calvin Blackman Bridges. Biogr. Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci 12, 31-48 — [LINK]
  • Muller, H. J. (1939). Dr. Calvin B. Bridges (obituary notice). Nature 143, 191-2 — [LINK]
  • Murphey, R. K., Possidente, D., Pollack, G., Merritt, D. J. (1989). Modality-specific axonal projections in the CNS of the flies Phormia and Drosophila. Comp. Neurol. 290, 185-200 — [LINK]
  • Novitski, E. (2005) Sturtevant and Dobzhansky: two scientists at odds with a student’s recollections. Xlibris — [LINK]
  • Novitski, E. (2006). Genetics in the early twentieth century – a personal journey. Chromosome Res 14, 339-47 — [LINK1] [LINK2]
  • Nobel prizes for work on Drosophila
  • Rubin, G. M., Lewis, E. B. (2000). A brief history of Drosophila’s contributions to genome research. Science 287, 2216-8 — [LINK]
  • Rosbash, M. (2015). Ronald J. Konopka (1947–2015). Cell 161, 187-188 — [LINK]
  • Schultz, J. (1967) Innovators and controversies (Book Review). Science 157, 296-301 — [LINK]
  • Stephan, W., Li, H. (2007) The recent demographic and adaptive history of Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity (Edinb) 98, 65-8 — [LINK]
  • Stephenson, R., Metcalfe, N. H. (2013). Drosophila melanogaster: a fly through its history and current use. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 43, 70-5 — [LINK]
  • Sturtevant, A. H. (1959). Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945). Biogr Mem Natl Acad Sci 33, 283-325 — [LINK1] – [LINK2]
  • Sturtevant, A. H. (1965). The “Fly Room”. Am Scientist 53, 303-7
  • Sturtevant, A. H. (2001). Reminiscences of T. H. Morgan. Genetics 159, 1-5 — [LINK]
  • Sturtevant, A. H. (2001). “A History of Genetics.” CSHL Press — [LINK1] — [LINK2]
  • Tanouye, M. A. (2008). Seymour Benzer 1921-2007. Nat Genet 40, 121 — [LINK]
  • Wangler, M. F., Yamamoto, S., Bellen, H. J. (2015). Fruit flies in biomedical research. Genetics — [LINK]
  • A book about Seymour Benzer: Weiner, J. (1999). “Time, Love, Memory : A Great Biologist and His Quest for the Origins of Behavior.” Alfred A. Knopf, New York
  • Chapter 9 “The Hedgehog Three” in: Weston, K. M. (2013). “Blue Skies and Bench Space: Adventures in Cancer Research.” CSHL Press, Cold Spring Harbor — [LINK]
  • Wharton, K. (2015). William Martin Gelbart 1945-2015. Nat Genet 47, 1372-1372 — [LINK]
  • Wilfert, L., Jiggins, F. M. (2014). Flies on the move: an inherited virus mirrors Drosophila melanogaster‘s elusive ecology and demography. Mol Ecol 23, 2093-104 — [LINK]
  • Winchester, E. G. (2001). Bridges, Calvin Blackman. In “eLS“. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd — [LINK]
  • Wolter, J. (2013) The Notch signalling pathway in embryogenesis. blog for The Embryo Project Encyclopedia — [LINK]
  • Biography article in YourDictionary: “A.H. Sturtevant Facts